Mika Rottenberg was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1976. She immigrated to Israel with her family in 1977. In 1998, she graduated from Hamidrasha, Bait Berl College of Arts, Israel. In 2000, Rottenberg moved to New York to continue her education, receiving a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the School of Visual Arts in 2000 and a Master of Fine Arts from Columbia University in 2004.

Rottenberg's video works feature women with various physical eccentricities, such as being very tall, large-bodied, or muscular, performing physical acts that serve as an allegory for the human condition in post-modern times. Her videos are inspired by stories where women have an unusual characteristic about their bodies that makes them a commodity. "Mary's Cherries" (2004), which shows a woman's red fingernails being grown, clipped, and transformed into maraschino cherries, was influenced by a story about a woman with a rare blood type who quit her job to sell her blood. In "Cheese" (2007), she shows women with very long hair milking cows and making cheese using a machine powered by the movement of the women's hair. Rottenberg's work was showcased at the Whitney Biennial 2008.